1. Akanksha Sharma says

    intro volume 20,000lecture volume 2

  2. vishal kumar says

    Sir voice is very low

  3. Nawal Kishore Singh says

    Please increase the volume

  4. Rishab Kedia says

    which book is followed by the teacher?

  5. edson mubezi says

    hello like from tanzania

  6. Anirban saha says

    PC for program counter sir i think which you discussed at last .

  7. Saba Kausar says


  8. Mayur Rasadiya says

    Compare to edx it's poor quality of knowledge it's West of time it's 18 century Content We learn in 21 century really nptel course need to be update it's not 2008 video course but it's 2004 lecturer

  9. E N I G M A says

    7:30 starts


    information is good now the volume is too small

  11. Dehlan Shandirkayr says

    That intro tho

  12. vaishnavi buyan says

    poor quality of audio..

  13. Emilio Ponzoni says

    Menos onda le pone este viejo para dar una clase.

  14. Mandy Arthur says

    Going by the previous comments, I was really sceptical about how much I would get out of this particular lecture. But this is actually informative. The lecturer goes in depth about the topic and is a good starting point for beginners. If you are not taking notes, speed the video up to 1.5.

  15. Aditya Sadhukhan says

    The voice should be louder,its inaudible.

  16. Atif Hussain says

    Abe khana wana khata h ke ni jor bol thoda!

  17. David Chipps says

    PCI-EI love how he pauses and has to sift through his memory. I worked with kids that knew every acronym meaning and would blurt out the full name before you could recollect it. They couldn't get all the software to work together, but they knew those Acronyms. It is good to see a teacher that has a life like me and has slow Acronym recall.

  18. David Chipps says

    Long Live the Humanities. I think he is an excellent teacher. I love the analogy between computers and architecture. I came here to learn more about actual processor construction, since Apple is changing their processor for the fifth time. Intel is more cores, less power and not all apps can utilize all the new cores. His one problem is that his voice is monotone. All math and science teachers should be forced to take improv to loosen up. I'm a humanities major into computers and these classes are a stretch for me. I'm not sure what that has to do with his nationality Prince Gupta.

  19. Divyanshu Ahir says

    Sound.. Fuck Man

  20. laughing Town says

    Amit bhadana in LPU-👉👉👉https://youtu.be/EI2fOO5QrQI

  21. MANISH RATHI says

    hello sir

  22. Stephen Curry says

    A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm. Because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type.The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express the computations performed by the computer. They trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions.

  23. howardrrk7 says

    I never got a chance to say Thank You to the Professor. I watched these lectures a few years back on LearnersTV, and they helped me change my career path. Excellent syllabus and lectures.


    lomunyak nemayian

  25. Stephen Curry says

    A very important thing is "Machine that is fixed does not touch again", it stays there until it has another different failure, be it Hardware or Software "

  26. Stephen Curry says

    Computer ArchitectureDefinition – What does Computer Architecture mean?Computer architecture is a specification detailing how a set of software and hardware technology standards interact to form a computer system or platform. In short, computer architecture refers to how a computer system is designed and what technologies it is compatible with.As with other contexts and meanings of the word architecture, computer architecture is likened to the art of determining the needs of the user/system/technology, and creating a logical design and standards based on those requirements. Manage Complex ERP Environments WebinarTechopedia explains Computer ArchitectureA very good example of computer architecture is von Neumann architecture, which is still used by most types of computers today. This was proposed by the mathematician John von Neumann in 1945. It describes the design of an electronic computer with its CPU, which includes the arithmetic logic unit, control unit, registers, memory for data and instructions, an input/output interface and external storage functions.There are three categories of computer architecture:System Design: This includes all hardware components in the system, including data processors aside from the CPU, such as the graphics processing unit and direct memory access. It also includes memory controllers, data paths and miscellaneous things like multiprocessing and virtualization.Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): This is the embedded programming language of the central processing unit. It defines the CPU's functions and capabilities based on what programming it can perform or process. This includes the word size, processor register types, memory addressing modes, data formats and the instruction set that programmers use.Microarchitecture: Otherwise known as computer organization, this type of architecture defines the data paths, data processing and storage elements, as well as how they should be implemented in the ISA.

  27. Stephen Curry says

    The purpose is to design a computer that maximizes performance while keeping power consumption in check, costs low relative to the amount of expected performance, and is also very reliable. For this, many aspects are to be considered which includes instruction set design, functional organization, logic design, and implementation. The implementation involves integrated circuit design, packaging, power, and cooling. Optimization of the design requires familiarity with compilers, operating systems to logic design, and packaging

  28. Stephen Curry says

    An instruction set architecture (ISA) is the interface between the computer's software and hardware and also can be viewed as the programmer's view of the machine. Computers do not understand high level languages such as Java, C++, or most programming languages used. A processor only understands instructions encoded in some numerical fashion, usually as binary numbers. Software tools, such as compilers, translate those high level languages into instructions that the processor can understand.Besides instructions, the ISA defines items in the computer that are available to a program—e.g. data types, registers, addressing modes, and memory. Instructions locate these available items with register indexes (or names) and memory addressing modes.

  29. Stephen Curry says

    The ISA of a computer is usually described in a small instruction manual, which describes how the instructions are encoded. Also, it may define short (vaguely) mnemonic names for the instructions. The names can be recognized by a software development tool called an assembler. An assembler is a computer program that translates a human-readable form of the ISA into a computer-readable form. Disassemblers are also widely available, usually in debuggers and software programs to isolate and correct malfunctions in binary computer programs.ISAs vary in quality and completeness. A good ISA compromises between programmer convenience (how easy the code is to understand), size of the code (how much code is required to do a specific action), cost of the computer to interpret the instructions (more complexity means more space needed to disassemble the instructions), and speed of the computer (with larger disassemblers comes longer disassemble time). For example, single-instruction ISAs like an ISA that subtracts one from a value and if the value is zero then the value returns to a higher value are both inexpensive, and fast, however ISAs like that are not convenient or helpful when looking at the size of the ISA. Memory organization defines how instructions interact with the memory, and how memory interacts with itself.During design emulation software (emulators) can run programs written in a proposed instruction set. Modern emulators can measure size, cost, and speed to determine if a particular ISA is meeting its goal

  30. Stephen Curry says

    Computer organization helps optimize performance-based products. For example, software engineers need to know the processing power of processors. They may need to optimize software in order to gain the most performance for the lowest price. This can require quite detailed analysis of the computer's organization. For example, in a SD card, the designers might need to arrange the card so that the most data can be processed in the fastest possible way.Computer organization also helps plan the selection of a processor for a particular project. Multimedia projects may need very rapid data access, while virtual machines may need fast interrupts. Sometimes certain tasks need additional components as well. For example, a computer capable of running a virtual machine needs virtual memory hardware so that the memory of different virtual computers can be kept separated. Computer organization and features also affect power consumption and processor cost.

  31. Stephen Curry says

    Once an instruction set and micro-architecture are designed, a practical machine must be developed. This design process is called the implementation. Implementation is usually not considered architectural design, but rather hardware design engineering. Implementation can be further broken down into several steps:Logic Implementation designs the circuits required at a logic gate levelCircuit Implementation does transistor-level designs of basic elements (gates, multiplexers, latches etc.) as well as of some larger blocks (ALUs, caches etc.) that may be implemented at the log gate level, or even at the physical level if the design calls for it.Physical Implementation draws physical circuits. The different circuit components are placed in a chip floorplan or on a board and the wires connecting them are created.Design Validation tests the computer as a whole to see if it works in all situations and all timings. Once the design validation process starts, the design at the logic level are tested using logic emulators. However, this is usually too slow to run realistic test. So, after making corrections based on the first test, prototypes are constructed using Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs). Most hobby projects stop at this stage. The final step is to test prototype integrated circuits. Integrated circuits may require several redesigns to fix problems.For CPUs, the entire implementation process is organized differently and is often referred to as CPU design.

  32. Stephen Curry says

    The exact form of a computer system depends on the constraints and goals. Computer architectures usually trade off standards, power versus performance, cost, memory capacity, latency (latency is the amount of time that it takes for information from one node to travel to the source) and throughput. Sometimes other considerations, such as features, size, weight, reliability, and expandability are also factors.The most common scheme does an in depth power analysis and figures out how to keep power consumption low, while maintaining adequate performance.

  33. Stephen Curry says

    Modern computer performance is often described in IPC (instructions per cycle). This measures the efficiency of the architecture at any clock frequency. Since a faster rate can make a faster computer, this is a useful measurement. Older computers had IPC counts as low as 0.1 instructions per cycle. Simple modern processors easily reach near 1. Superscalar processors may reach three to five IPC by executing several instructions per clock cycle.Counting machine language instructions would be misleading because they can do varying amounts of work in different ISAs. The "instruction" in the standard measurements is not a count of the ISA's actual machine language instructions, but a unit of measurement, usually based on the speed of the VAX computer architecture.Many people used to measure a computer's speed by the clock rate (usually in MHz or GHz). This refers to the cycles per second of the main clock of the CPU. However, this metric is somewhat misleading, as a machine with a higher clock rate may not necessarily have greater performance. As a result, manufacturers have moved away from clock speed as a measure of performance.Other factors influence speed, such as the mix of functional units, bus speeds, available memory, and the type and order of instructions in the programs.There are two main types of speed: latency and throughput. Latency is the time between the start of a process and its completion. Throughput is the amount of work done per unit time. Interrupt latency is the guaranteed maximum response time of the system to an electronic event (like when the disk drive finishes moving some data).Performance is affected by a very wide range of design choices — for example, pipelining a processor usually makes latency worse, but makes throughput better. Computers that control machinery usually need low interrupt latencies. These computers operate in a real-time environment and fail if an operation is not completed in a specified amount of time. For example, computer-controlled anti-lock brakes must begin braking within a predictable, short time after the brake pedal is sensed or else failure of the brake will occur.Benchmarking takes all these factors into account by measuring the time a computer takes to run through a series of test programs. Although benchmarking shows strengths, it shouldn't be how you choose a computer. Often the measured machines split on different measures. For example, one system might handle scientific applications quickly, while another might render video games more smoothly. Furthermore, designers may target and add special features to their products, through hardware or software, that permit a specific benchmark to execute quickly but don't offer similar advantages to general tasks.

  34. Stephen Curry says

    Power efficiency is another important measurement in modern computers. A higher power efficiency can often be traded for lower speed or higher cost. The typical measurement when referring to power consumption in computer architecture is MIPS/W (millions of instructions per second per watt).Modern circuits have less power required per transistor as the number of transistors per chip grows.This is because each transistor that is put in a new chip requires its own power supply and requires new pathways to be built to power it. However the number of transistors per chip is starting to increase at a slower rate. Therefore, power efficiency is starting to become as important, if not more important than fitting more and more transistors into a single chip. Recent processor designs have shown this emphasis as they put more focus on power efficiency rather than cramming as many transistors into a single chip as possible.[15] In the world of embedded computers, power efficiency has long been an important goal next to throughput and latency.

  35. Stephen Curry says

    In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.

  36. Stephen Curry says

    There are other types of computer architecture. The following types are used in bigger companies like Intel, and count for 1% of all of computer architectureMacroarchitecture: architectural layers more abstract than microarchitectureAssembly Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): A smart assembler may convert an abstract assembly language common to a group of machines into slightly different machine language for different implementationsProgrammer Visible Macroarchitecture: higher level language tools such as compilers may define a consistent interface or contract to programmers using them, abstracting differences between underlying ISA, UISA, and microarchitectures. E.g. the C, C++, or Java standards define different Programmer Visible Macroarchitecture.UISA (Microcode Instruction Set Architecture)—a group of machines with different hardware level microarchitectures may share a common microcode architecture, and hence a UISA.Pin Architecture: The hardware functions that a microprocessor should provide to a hardware platform, e.g., the x86 pins A20M, FERR/IGNNE or FLUSH. Also, messages that the processor should emit so that external caches can be invalidated (emptied). Pin architecture functions are more flexible than ISA functions because external hardware can adapt to new encodings, or change from a pin to a message. The term "architecture" fits, because the functions must be provided for compatible systems, even if the detailed method changes

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